Blast Waves

by: Charles E. Needham

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9783642052880 , 320 Pages

Format: PDF

Windows PC,Mac OSX Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's

Price: 149,79 EUR

More eBook Details

Blast Waves


 

Preface

6

Contents

7

Chapter 1: Introduction

12

Introduction

12

Chapter 2: Some Basic Air Blast Definitions

13

Formation of a Shock Wave

15

Methods for Generating a Shock Wave

16

Chapter 3: The Rankine-Hugoniot Relations

19

Real Air Effects on Gamma

20

Variable gamma Rankine-Hugoniot Relations

21

Some Useful Shock Relations

22

References

25

Chapter 4: Formation of Blast Waves

26

The Taylor Wave

26

The Sedov Solution

27

Rarefaction Waves

29

Nuclear Detonation Blast Standard [7]

32

Description of Blast Wave Formation from a Nuclear Source

32

Description of Energy Deposition and Early Expansion

32

The 1 KT Nuclear Blast Standard

37

Construction of the Fits

42

Overpressure Fit

42

Overdensity Fit

43

Velocity Fit

44

References

45

Chapter 5: Ideal High Explosive Detonation Waves

46

Chapman-Jouget Relations

46

Equation of State

47

Analytic Integration

48

Solid Explosive Detonation

49

TNT Detonation

50

High Explosive Blast Standard

57

Ideal Detonation Waves in Gasses

60

Fuel-Air Explosives

65

Gaseous Fuel-Air Explosives

66

Liquid Fuel Air Explosives

68

Solid Fuel Air Explosives (SFAE)

69

References

72

Chapter 6: Cased Explosives

73

Extremely Light Casings

73

Light Casings

76

Moderate to Heavily Cased Charges

77

Fragmentation

79

Energy Balance

80

Gurney Relations

83

MottĀ“s Distribution

85

The Modified Fano Equation

88

First Principles Calculation of Blast from Cased Charges

89

Active Cases

90

References

93

Chapter 7: Blast Wave Propagation

94

One Dimensional Propagation

96

Numerical Representations of One Dimensional Flows

98

Two Dimensional Propagation

99

Numerical Representations of Two Dimensional Flows

100

Three Dimensional Propagation

101

Numerical Representations of Three Dimensional Flows

101

Low Overpressure Propagation

103

Acoustic Wave Propagation

104

Non-Linear Acoustic Wave Propagation

106

References

106

Chapter 8: Boundary Layers

107

General Description

107

Boundary Layer Formation and Growth

108

Termination of a Boundary Layer

109

Calculated and Experimental Boundary Layer Comparisons

110

References

119

Chapter 9: Particulate Entrainment and Acceleration

120

Particulate Sweep-up

120

Pressure and Insertion Velocity

121

Drag and Multi-Phase Flow

122

Particulate Effects on Dynamic Pressure

127

Effects of Water

128

References

130

Chapter 10: Instabilities

131

Raleigh-Taylor Instabilities

131

Kelvin-Helmholtz Instabilities

136

Richtmyer-Meshkov Instabilities

139

References

141

Chapter 11: Measurement Techniques

142

Use of Smoke Rockets

142

Smoke Puffs

143

Painted Backdrops

145

Overpressure Measurements

145

Passive Techniques

147

Self Recording Gauges

148

Active Electronic Gauges

149

Density Measurements

150

Velocity Measurement

151

Angle of Flow Measurement

151

Temperature Measurement

152

Dynamic Pressure Measurement

153

Stagnation Pressure Measurement

156

Total Impulse Gauge

157

References

157

Chapter 12: Scaling Blast Parameters

159

Yield Scaling

159

Application to Nuclear Detonations

161

Atmospheric Scaling

163

Examples of Scaling

170

Chapter 13: Blast Wave Reflections

172

Regular Reflections

172

Regular Reflection at Non-perpendicular Incidence

173

Mach Reflection

174

Simple or Single Mach Reflection

174

Complex Mach Reflection

176

Double Mach Reflection

177

Planar Reflections

183

Single Wedge Reflections

183

Pressure Above the Reflecting Surface

187

Mean Free Path Effects

190

Rough Wedge Reflections

193

Reflections from Curved Surfaces

195

References

199

Chapter 14: Height of Burst Effects

201

Ideal Surfaces

201

Nuclear Detonations

203

Solid High Explosive Detonations

205

Range for Mach Transition

216

Height of Burst Over Real Surfaces

218

Surface Response

219

Surface Roughness Effects

222

Dust Scouring Effects

222

Terrain Effects

224

Thermal Interactions (precursors)

227

Free Field Propagation in One Dimension

230

Shock Tube Example

230

Thermal Interactions Over Real Terrain

232

Generating a Heated Layer

233

Organic Surface Material

240

Simulation of Thermal Layers

241

Decursor Simulation

245

References

245

Chapter 15: Structure Interactions

247

Pressure Loads

248

Impulse Loads

251

Non Ideal Blast Wave Loads

254

Negative Phase Effects on Structure Loads

256

Effects of Structures on Propagation

257

The Influence of Rigid and Responding Structures

261

References

269

Chapter 16: External Detonations

270

Chapter 17: Internal Detonations

280

Blast Propagation in Tunnels

286

References

290

Chapter 18: Simulation Techniques

291

Blast Waves in Shock Tubes

291

High Explosive Charges

292

Charge Arrays

294

Use of Exit Jets to Simulate Nuclear Thermal Precursor Blast Environments

296

References

300

Chapter 19: Some Notes on Non-ideal Explosives

301

Properties of Non-ideal Explosives

302

Combustion or Afterburning Dependency of Non-ideal Explosives

302

Charge Size

302

Casing Effects

302

Proximity of Reflecting Surfaces

304

Effects of Venting From the Structure

304

Oxygen Availability

306

Importance of Particle Size Distribution in Thermobarics

308

References

310

Chapter 20: Modeling Blast Waves

311

Non-linear Shock Addition Rules

311

Image Bursts

312

Modeling the Mach Stem

316

Loads from External Sources

318

A Model for Propagating Blast Waves Around Corners

318

Blast Propagation Through an Opening in a Wall

323

Angular Dependence of Transmitted Wave

325

Blast Wave Propagation Through a Second Opening

326

References

328

Index

330