Environmental and Agricultural Modelling: - Integrated Approaches for Policy Impact Assessment

by: Floor M. Brouwer, Martin van Ittersum

Springer-Verlag, 2010

ISBN: 9789048136193 , 322 Pages

Format: PDF, Read online

Windows PC,Mac OSX Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Palm OS, PocketPC 2002 und älter, PocketPC 2003 und neuer, Windows Mobile Smartphone, Handys (mit Symbian) Read Online: Windows PC,Mac OSX,Linux

Price: 171,19 EUR

More eBook Details

Environmental and Agricultural Modelling: - Integrated Approaches for Policy Impact Assessment


 

Preface

5

Contributors

8

Acronyms and Abbreviations

20

Chapter 1 Introduction

24

Context of Integrated Assessment: Policy and Research

24

Model Components and Database

26

Software Architecture and Ontologies

27

Key Objectives and Organisation of the Book

28

References

30

Chapter 2 Assessment of Multifunctionality and Jointness of Production

32

Introduction

32

Joint Supply, Theoretical Framework

34

Towards Indicators of Multifunctionality

36

Step 1: Identification of Jointness

38

Jointness at the Farm Gate

38

Jointness at the Regional Level

40

Step 2: Qualitative Assessment of Jointness

41

Step 3: Quantitative Assessment of Jointness

42

Testing Against Data in Europe

45

Identification of Jointness

45

Jointness at the Farm Gate

45

Jointness at the Farm Gate in a Region

48

Qualitative Assessment of Jointness

51

Quantitative Assessment of Jointness

53

Conclusions

54

References

55

Chapter 3 The Institutional Dimension in Policy Assessment

57

Introduction

57

Overview of Approaches for Policy Assessment

59

The Concept of Institutional Analysis for Ex-ante Policy Assessment

61

Institutions for Sustainability

61

Institutional Compatibility

62

The Procedure for Institutional Compatibility Assessment (PICA)

64

Focussing PICA Step One: Deriving Policy Types

65

Institutional Compatibility of the EU Nitrate Directive

70

PICA Step One: Classification of the Policy Option

71

PICA Step Two: Crucial Institutional Aspects Related to the Policy Option

71

PICA Step Three: Linking Crucial Institutional Aspects to Institutional Indicators

72

PICA Step Four: Aggregating Information on Crucial Institutional Aspects of the Policy Option

74

Functions of PICA Within SEAMLESS-IF

76

References

77

Chapter 4 A Component-Based Framework for Simulating Agricultural Production and Externalities

81

Introduction

81

APES: The Agricultural Production and Externalities Simulator

84

Component Based Structure

85

Model Components

86

Agro-management Components

87

AgroManagement: Rule Based Modelling of Technical Management

87

Production Enterprise Components

89

AbioticDamage: Damage on Plants by Abiotic Factors

89

AgroChemicals: Pesticide Fate

89

Crop: Crop Development and Growth

90

CropML: Crop Development and Growth

91

Diseases: Air-Borne Plant Diseases

92

Grasses: Grassland Growth and Quality

93

FieldManager: Spatial Information for Multiple Plant Species

94

LightInterception: Light Interception and Competition by Canopies

94

MassBalance: A Library of Mass Balance Tests

95

RootDistribution: Roots Growth and Distribution

95

Tree: Woody Plant Growth and Quality

95

WaterUptake: Plant Water Uptake

96

Soil Components

96

SoilCarbonNitrogen: Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics

96

SoilErosion: Water Runoff and Soil Erosion by Water

97

SoilNitrogen: Soil Nitrogen Dynamics

98

SoilTemperature: Simulation of Temperature in the Soil Profile

98

SoilReader: Accessing Soil Data at Initialization

99

SoilWater: Soil Water and Hydrologic Characteristics Dynamics

99

SoilWater 2: Soil Water and Hydrologic Characteristics Dynamics

100

Weather Data Components

101

WeatherReader: Accessing Weather Data and Estimating Missing Values

101

The Intended Use of APES

101

Inputs

102

Parameters

103

Software Architecture

104

Component Design

105

Ontology

106

Model Granularity in Components

107

Test of Pre- and Post-conditions

109

Exception Handling

109

Tracing

110

Unit Tests

110

Model and Software Design and User Documentation

110

Component Public Interface

111

Technology Used

111

Model Component Diagram

111

The MODCOM Engine

112

Data Exchange Between Components

113

The APES Stand-Alone Application

113

The AgroManagement Configuration Generator

114

The Model Parameter Editor

115

The Graphic Data Display Component

115

The Simulation Output Evaluator

116

The CLIMA Weather Generator

117

The Model Component Explorer

118

APES Tools for Integration in Broader Modelling Systems

118

The Parameter Estimator

118

The Sensitivity Analysis Component

119

Remarks on APES Integration in Larger Systems

119

Concluding Remarks

120

Web Resources

121

References

121

Chapter 5 A Generic Farming System Simulator

127

Introduction

127

Farm Typology

128

Aim of the Farm Typology

128

Representation of the Farm Type: Average Versus Typical Farm

129

FSSIM-MP: Mathematical Programming Model

131

Aim of FSSIM-MP

131

FSSIM-MP Overview

132

Modelling of Policy Instruments in FSSIM-MP

134

Exogenous Assumptions for a Baseline Scenario

136

FSSIM-MP Structure: Modular Setup

136

FSSIM-AM: Agricultural Management

137

Aim of FSSIM-AM

137

Deriving and Quantifying Current Activities

139

Detailed Survey

139

Simple Survey

139

Data Storage and Checking

140

Generating Alternative Activities

140

Purpose

140

Production Enterprise Generator

140

Production Technique Generator

141

Technical Coefficient Generator

141

The Technical Implementation Through an Integrated Modelling Framework (SeamFrame)

142

FSSIM Application: Detailed and Simple Applications

143

Detailed Application of FSSIM

144

Simple or Summarized Application of FSSIM

146

Conclusions

148

References

149

Chapter 6 Visualising Changes in Agricultural Landscapes

151

Introduction

151

Software Methodology and Design

155

Existing Software Tools

156

Data Needs

156

Digital Terrain Elevation Data (Raster)

157

Land Cover Classification Data (Raster or Vector)

157

Geotypical Textures Library (Raster)

157

Orthophoto (Raster)

157

Vegetation Model Library

158

Data Handling and Processing

159

Data Rendering

162

Example of Application

163

The Situation

163

The Scenarios

164

Scenario 1: Biodiversity by Agriculture

165

Scenario 2: A Green City in a Mediterranean Forest

165

Scenario 3: Urban Pressure

167

Scenario 4: The Garrigue After the Energy Crisis

168

Discussion

170

References

172

Chapter 7 A Biophysical Typology in Agri-environmental Modelling

176

Introduction

176

Objective of SEAMLESS Biophysical Typology

176

Background

177

Requirements of a Spatial Agri-environmental Framework

179

Short Description of the Contents

180

Environmental Typologies and Up-scaling

180

Data

182

Description and Characterization of the Environmental Zones (EnZ)

182

Description of European Soil DataBase (ESDBv2)

183

Description of TOPsoil Organic Carbon (OCTOP)

184

Description of the Global Digital Elevation Model (GTOPO30)

184

Methods

185

Selection of Soil Variables

185

Agri-mask

187

Results

188

Agri-environmental Zonation (AEnZ)

188

Definition

188

Characterization

188

Seamzones

190

Definition

190

Climate

193

Soil

193

Applications

197

Selection of Sample Regions

197

Allocation of Farms

198

Model Input in SEAMLESS

199

Discussion and Conclusions

199

Agri-environmental Zones

199

Climate Zones

200

Seamzones

200

Applications

201

References

201

Chapter 8 The Use of Regional Typologies in the Assessment of Farms’ Performance

205

Introduction

205

Methodological Approach

207

Approach for Testing Hypotheses

209

Measurement of Farming Intensity

209

Typology of Rural and Urban Regions

209

Typology of Regions Based on the Share of Agricultural Employment

211

Typology of LFA and Non-LFA Regions

213

References

221

Results

214

Concluding Remarks

219

Drawbacks of Typologies at a Relatively High Regional Aggregation Level

219

Wide Support for Hypothesis (2) and (3)

219

Regional Characteristics Included in Integrated Assessments

220

Chapter 9 A Web-Based Software System for Model Integration in Impact Assessments of Agricultural and Environmental Policies

222

Introduction

222

Challenges in Integrated Modelling

223

Interoperability from a Theoretical Perspective

223

Interoperability in Integrated Modelling

225

The Need for a Common Ontology

226

The Role of Ontologies in SEAMLESS

227

The Structure of SEAMLESS-IF Framework

227

Knowledge Management Technologies in SEAMLESS

228

An Architecture for Knowledge Integration in Integrated Assessment Studies

230

The SEAMLESS-IF Architecture

230

The Role of Software Engineering in the Design of Integrated Assessment Tools

232

SEAMLESS Server Technologies

233

SEAMLESS Client Technologies

235

The SEAMLESS Knowledge Manager

236

OpenMI and Model Linking

238

Using SEAMLESS-IF for Integrated Assessment Studies

240

Starting a Project in SEAMLESS-IF (Pre-modelling Phase)

240

Narrative Experiments

242

Indicator Selector and Fact Sheet Viewer

242

Constrained Choice of the Model Chain by Scale Selection (Modelling Phase)

243

Detailed Specification of Experiments

244

Chain Execution, Server-Side Queuing Model Execution and Client-Side Monitoring

244

The Visualization Environment (Post-modelling Phase)

245

Conclusions

246

References

247

Chapter 10 Evaluating Integrated Assessment Tools for Policy Support

251

Introduction

251

Deriving a General Approach to Evaluate IA Tools

252

Three Phases to Evaluate an Integrated Framework

253

Using Case Studies to Guide Evaluation and Development of the Integrated Framework

255

Conceptual Evaluation

256

Conceptual Evaluation of the Procedure for Using the Integrated Framework

257

Conceptual Evaluation of Quantitative Tools

259

Conceptual Evaluation of User Interfaces

260

Technical Evaluation

261

Technical Evaluation of Procedures for Using the Integrated Framework

261

Technical Evaluation of Quantitative Tools

261

Technical Evaluation of the User Interface

262

System Evaluation

263

System Evaluation of Procedures for Using the Integrated Framework

263

System Evaluation of Quantitative Tools

264

System Evaluation of the User Interface

264

Some More Lessons to Organize the Evaluation of an Integrated Framework

264

Use of Prototypes

265

Use of Case Studies

266

Timing of Testing

266

Independent Testers

267

Multidisciplinarity

267

Separating End-Users and Modellers

268

References

268

Chapter 11 A Comparison of CAPRI and SEAMLESS-IF as Integrated Modelling Systems

271

Introduction

271

Short Description of the CAPRI Modelling System and Its Integration in SEAMLESS-IF

272

Comparing Objectives and Structure

275

Differences in Concepts for Database and Coverage

276

Concepts of Linking Models/Components

277

The Farm Type Models in Both Systems

278

Calibration of Farm Type and Regional Programming Models

279

Technology and Externalities

280

Modelling of Policies at Farm Level

281

Agri-environmental Indicators

281

Baseline Generation for Forward Looking Impact Assessment

282

Graphical User Interface

283

Looking into the Future

284

Conclusions

286

References

286

Chapter 12 Science–Policy Interfaces in Impact Assessment Procedures

289

Introduction

289

Motive and Aim of the European Impact Assessment System

291

Impact Assessment as Part of the Dynamics of Policy

291

IA as a Learning Process

292

Conceptualizing Science–Policy Interactions in SEAMLESS-IF Application

293

The SEAMLESS-IF Impact Assessment Procedure

293

The SEAMLESS-IF Outputs as Science–Policy Interface

296

Case Studies: Establishing a Debate

297

Case: Interacting with the EC

298

Forming a Platform for Interaction

298

Positive and Negative Feedback from a User Perspective

299

Which Type of User Interface for Whom?

301

Strategic Motives Behind Requests for Technical Performance and Knowledge Content

301

Concluding Remark on the UF Experience

303

Case: Interacting with Regional Organisations

303

General Feedback on the Pre-modelling Process

304

The Framing Process

304

Specification of the Policy Option

305

Concluding Remark on the Regional Test Experiences

305

Conclusions

306

References

307

Chapter 13 Economic Principles of Monetary Valuation in Evaluation Studies

309

Introduction

309

Methods for Valuing Biological Assets

312

Non-demand Approaches

312

Demand Approaches: Revealed Preference and Stated Preference Methods

313

Travel Cost Method

313

Hedonic Pricing Method

314

Contingent Valuation Method

314

Choice Modelling

316

Benefit Transfer

317

Monetary Values of Changes in Agro-biodiversity: Some Examples

318

Monetary Valuation and Agricultural Policy

320

Estimating Social Costs and Benefits

320

Aggregation of Costs and Benefits

322

The Role of Monetary Valuation Methods in SEAMLESS

324

Conclusions

326

References

327