The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview

by: Rajmund Przybylak, Jacek Majorowicz, Rudolf Brázdil, Marek Kejan

Springer-Verlag, 2009

ISBN: 9789048131679 , 535 Pages

Format: PDF

Windows PC,Mac OSX Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Palm OS, PocketPC 2002 und älter, PocketPC 2003 und neuer, Windows Mobile Smartphone, Handys (mit Symbian)

Price: 223,63 EUR

More eBook Details

The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview


 

Przybylak_Frontmatter

1

Anchor 1

4

Anchor 2

9

Anchor 3

11

Anchor 4

11

Anchor 5

11

Anchor 6

11

Anchor 7

11

Anchor 8

11

Anchor 9

11

Anchor 10

11

Anchor 11

12

Anchor 12

12

Anchor 13

12

Anchor 14

12

Anchor 15

12

Anchor 16

12

Anchor 17

12

Anchor 18

12

Anchor 19

12

Anchor 20

13

Anchor 21

13

Anchor 22

13

Anchor 23

13

Anchor 24

13

Anchor 25

13

Anchor 26

13

Anchor 27

13

Anchor 28

13

Anchor 29

13

Anchor 30

14

Anchor 31

14

Anchor 32

14

Anchor 33

14

Anchor 34

14

Anchor 35

14

Anchor 36

14

Anchor 37

14

Anchor 38

14

Anchor 40

15

Anchor 41

15

Anchor 42

15

Anchor 43

15

Anchor 44

15

Anchor 45

15

Anchor 46

15

Anchor 47

15

Anchor 48

16

Anchor 49

16

Anchor 50

16

Anchor 51

16

Anchor 52

16

Przybylak_Ch01

17

Chapter 1

18

Climate Change in Poland in the Past Centuries and its Relationship to European Climate: Evidence from Reconstructions and Coup

18

1.1 Introduction

19

1.2 Data

22

1.2.1 Instrumental and Reconstructed Data

22

1.2.1.1 North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

23

1.2.1.2 East Atlantic/Western Russia Pattern (EA/WRUS)

24

1.2.1.3 Scandinavian Pattern (SCAND)

24

1.2.2 Model Data

24

1.2.2.1 ECHO-G Temperature and Precipitation Data

24

1.2.2.2 HadCM3 Temperature and Precipitation Data

25

1.3 Methods

26

1.3.1 Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA)

26

1.4 Results and Discussions

27

1.4.1 Comparing Winter Temperature and Precipitation Over Poland and European Land Areas in Reconstructions and in the Model

27

1.4.2 Spatial Correlation Analysis Between Polish Winter Precipitation and Temperature with Teleconnection Indices

36

1.4.3 CCA Between Winter Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation and Winter Climate Variability in Poland Back to 1750 Using Reco

39

1.4.3.1 CCA SLP-Polish Winter Temperature

39

1.4.3.2 CCA SLP-Polish Winter Precipitation

43

1.5 Discussions and Conclusions

48

References

49

Przybylak_Ch02

55

Chapter 2

55

Historical Climate in Central Europe During the Last 500 Years

55

2.1 Introduction

55

2.2 Instrumental and Proxy Climatological Data

57

2.3 Methods of Climate Reconstruction

62

2.4 Temperature and Precipitation Series Based on Documentary Evidence in Central Europe for the Last 500 Years

65

2.5 Temperature and Precipitation in Central Europe Since AD 1500 – Discussion

66

2.5.1 Air Temperature

66

2.5.2 Precipitation

71

2.5.3 Caveats for Temperature/Precipitation Reconstruction

74

2.5.3.1 Deriving Index Series

74

2.5.3.2 Reconstruction Methods

77

2.5.3.3 High- and Low-Frequency Signals

78

2.6 Perspectives on Further Research in Central Europe

78

References

79

Przybylak_Ch03

85

Chapter 3

85

Climatic Variations in the East European Plain During the Last Millennium: State of the Art

85

3.1 Introduction: Climate of the East European Plain

85

3.2 Materials and Methods

87

3.3 Instrumental Data

93

3.3.1 Mean Annual Temperature

93

3.3.2 Annual Precipitation

95

3.4 Historical Data

95

3.4.1 Documentary Evidence of Climate Changes in the East European Plain

95

3.4.2 Quantitative Estimate of Climate Changes in the East European Plain Using Historical Data

97

3.5 Tree-Ring Data

100

3.5.1 Summer Temperature Reconstructions

100

3.5.2 Precipitation and Runoff Reconstructions

101

3.6 Borehole Temperatures

102

3.7 Palynological Data

102

3.8 Hydrological Data

104

3.9 Multi-proxy Reconstruction

105

3.10 Discussion

108

3.11 Concluding Remarks

111

References

112

Przybylak_Ch04

116

Chapter 4

116

The Climate of Europe in Recent Centuries in the Context of the Climate of Mid to High Latitude Northern Hemisphere from Boreh

116

4.1 Introduction

116

4.2 Method

121

4.2.1 Ramp Model

122

4.2.2 Inversion Methods

125

4.2.3 Comparison with Temperature Variations from GCM

128

4.3 Variability of GST Warming

129

4.4 Polish and European Recent GST Warming

134

References

137

Chapter 5

1

Instrumental Observations

1

5.1 History of Early-Instrumental Observations

1

5.2 History of Some Long-Term Continuous Meteorological Series

1

5.2.1 Air Temperature

1

5.2.2 Atmospheric Precipitation

1

5.2.3 Atmospheric Pressure

1

5.2.4 Other Meteorological Variables

1

5.3 Climate Changes in the Instrumental Period

1

5.3.1 Air Temperature

1

5.3.2 Atmospheric Precipitation

1

5.3.3 Other Variables

1

5.4 Conclusions

1

References

1

Chapter 6

1

Documentary Evidence

1

6.1 Introduction

1

6.2 Documentary Sources – Kinds and Quality

1

6.2.1 The Middle Ages

1

6.2.2 The Sixteenth Century

1

6.2.3 The Seventeenth Century

1

6.2.4 The Eighteenth Century

1

6.2.5 A Concise Typology of Sources for the Period from the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries

1

6.2.6 Territorial Distribution of Records

1

6.2.7 Chronological Distribution of Records

1

6.3 History of Poland’s Climate in the Last Millennium

1

6.3.1 Air Temperature

1

6.3.2 Precipitation

1

6.4 Conclusions

1

References

1

Przybylak_Ch07

203

Chapter 7

203

Dendrochronological Data

203

7.1 Introduction

203

7.2 Material and Methods

211

7.2.1 Sampling

211

7.2.2 Material

212

7.2.3 Methods

213

7.2.3.1 Measurement and Basic Statistical Methods

213

7.2.3.2 Signature Years

213

7.2.3.3 Reconstruction

214

7.2.3.4 Others

217

7.3 Results and Discussion

218

7.4 Conclusions

225

References

225

Przybylak_Ch08

230

Chapter 8

230

Geophysical Data

230

8.1 Introduction

230

8.2 Review of GST Reconstruction in Poland Using Geothermal Data

231

8.3 GST History from Joint Inversion

233

8.4 Concluding Remarks

235

References

236

Przybylak_Ch09

238

Chapter 9

238

Concluding Remarks to Part II

238

References

240

Przybylak_Ch10

243

Chapter 10

244

Long-Term Changes of Bioclimatic Conditions in Cracow (Poland)

244

10.1 Introduction

244

10.2 Materials and Methods

244

10.3 Bioclimatic Indices Used

245

10.4 Results

247

10.4.1 Reconstruction of Bioclimatic Conditions for the Years 1826–1900

247

10.4.2 Fluctuations of Bioclimatic Conditions

248

10.5 Discussion

251

10.6 Conclusions

252

References

254

Przybylak_Ch11

256

Chapter 11

256

Climate Warming in the Czech Republic: Evidence Stored in Shallow Subsurface

256

11.1 Introduction

256

11.2 Rationale

257

11.3 Subsurface Temperature Monitoring

259

11.4 Monitoring Temperatures

259

11.5 Surface and Near Surface Effects

263

11.5.1 Snow Cover and Ground Freezing

263

11.5.2 Rain Precipitation

268

11.6 Meteorological Data and Regional Warming Pattern

270

11.7 Conclusions

272

References

274

Przybylak_Ch12

276

Chapter 12

276

History of the Gdansk Pre-Instrumental and Instrumental Record of Meteorological Observations and Analysis of Selected Air Pr

276

12.1 Introduction

276

12.2 We Have Known About This for Years

278

12.3 That Was the Beginning According to New Findings

279

12.4 The Gdansk Air Pressure Series – Evaluation of Metadata

286

12.4.1 Reinick Series

287

12.4.2 Kleefeld Series

288

12.4.3 Neufahrwasser Series

289

12.5 Reduction of the Pressure

289

12.6 Selected Statistical Analyses of the Pressure Series

290

12.7 Summary

299

References

300

Przybylak_Ch13

303

Chapter 13

303

A Composite Reconstruction of the Russian Arctic Climate Back to A.D. 1435

303

References

332

Przybylak_Ch14

335

Chapter 14

335

Growth/Climate Relationships in Tree-Ring Widths of Picea Abies in Lithuania and Poland

335

14.1 Introduction

335

14.1.1 Aim of Study

335

14.1.2 Climate of Study Area

336

14.2 Material and Methods

336

14.2.1 Tree Sites and Sampling Method

336

14.2.2 Local Chronologies

337

14.2.3 Regionalisation

338

14.2.4 Dendroclimatological Analysis

338

14.3 Results and Discussion

339

14.3.1 Dendroclimatological Regionalisation

339

14.3.2 Growth/Climate Relationships

341

14.4 Conclusions

346

References

347

Przybylak_Ch15

349

Chapter 15

349

Multi-Annual Variability of Cloudiness and Sunshine Duration in Cracow Between 1826 and 2005

349

15.1 Introduction

349

15.2 Cloudiness

349

15.3 Clear and Overcast Days

353

15.4 Sunshine Duration

354

15.5 Results and Conclusions

359

References

360

Przybylak_Ch16

362

Chapter 16

362

Changes in Sea Surface Temperature of the South Baltic Sea (1854–2005)

362

16.1 Stating the Problem

362

16.2 Data

364

16.3 The Course of Mean Annual Value of SST of the Baltic Sea

367

16.4 Correlation Between Sea Surface Temperatures with NAO

370

16.5 Correlations of SST with the Frequency of Occurrence of Synoptic Situations of a Certain Type

373

16.6 Relations of Air Temperature Over Coastal Areas with SST

374

16.7 The Problem of Climatic Signal in Series of Values of Mean Annual SST of the Baltic Sea

376

References

379

Przybylak_Ch17

382

Chapter 17

382

Ground Surface Temperature Histories Reconstructed from Boreholes in Poland: Implications for Spatial Variability

382

17.1 Introduction

382

17.2 Inverse Method

383

17.2.1 Forward Model

384

17.2.2 Inverse Technique

385

17.2.3 Regularizing Operators

387

17.2.4 Data Preparation

387

17.3 Results and Discussion

388

17.4 Conclusions

391

References

393

Przybylak_Ch18

395

Chapter 18

395

Precipitation Extremes and Disastrous Floods in Central Europe in July 1897

395

18.1 Introduction

395

18.2 Precipitation Extremes

395

18.3 Floods and Their Impacts

397

18.4 Conclusion

401

References

402

Przybylak_Ch19

403

Chapter 19

403

Summer Temperatures in the Tatra Mountains During the Maunder Minimum (1645–1715)

403

19.1 Introduction

403

19.2 Summer Temperatures During the Maunder Minimum and During the Adjacent Periods

404

19.2.1 Relatively Cool Period Preceding the Maunder Minimum (1576–1675)

404

19.2.2 The First Phase of the Maunder Minimum (1645–1675)

406

19.3 The Late Maunder Minimum (1676–1715)

407

19.3.1 The Warm Phase of the Late Maunder Minimum (1676–1688)

407

19.3.2 The Cool Phase of the Late Maunder Minimum (1689–1699)

408

19.3.3 The Last Phase of the Late Maunder Minimum (1700–1715)

409

19.4 The Periods After the Maunder Minimum (1716–1820)

409

19.5 Conclusions

409

References

410

Przybylak_Ch20

413

Chapter 20

413

Seasonal Differentiation of Maximum and Minimum Air Temperature in Cracow and Prague in the Period 1836–2007

413

20.1 Introduction

413

20.2 Data and Methods

415

20.3 The Tendencies of Change of Maximum and Minimum Air Temperature

416

20.4 The Tendencies of Change of the Number of Hot Days (Tmax > 25°C) and Very Hot Days (Tmax > 30°C)

419

20.5 Tendencies of Change of Frosty Days (Tmax < 0°C) and Days with Severe Frost (Tmax < 10°C)

421

20.6 Discussion and Conclusions

423

References

426

Przybylak_Ch21

428

Chapter 21

428

Climate Changes in the Central and North-Eastern Parts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1656 to 1685

428

21.1 Introduction

428

21.2 Area of Investigations

429

21.3 Data and Methods

431

21.3.1 Historical Period

431

21.3.2 Correction Procedure

435

21.3.2.1 Procedure for Temperature Corrections for the Period 1668–1685

435

Annual Data

435

Monthly Data

437

21.3.2.2 Procedure for the correction of number of days with precipitation for the periods 1656–1657 and 1668–1685

437

Monthly and Annual Data

437

21.3.3 The Contemporary Period

438

21.4 Results and Discussion

438

21.4.1 Air Temperature

438

21.4.2 Atmospheric Precipitation

441

21.5 Summary and Conclusions

446

References

447

Przybylak_Ch22

449

Chapter 22

449

The Climate of Polish Lands as Viewed by Chroniclers, Writers and Scientists

449

22.1 Introduction

449

22.2 Weather Accounts in Chronicles

450

22.3 Examples of Weather Descriptions in Historical Novels and Romances

452

22.4 The Weather Observation Series in the Period of Non-Instrumental Observations

453

22.5 The Weather Observation Series in the Instrumental Period

454

22.6 The Importance of Systematic Weather Reporting for Science, as Exemplified by the Galician Network of Meteorological S

455

22.7 Conclusions

459

References

460

Chapter 23

1

Observations and Measurements of Precipitation in the Polish Province of Galicia in the Nineteenth Century

1

23.1 Introduction

1

23.2 Observations and Measurements of Precipitation Until the Mid Nineteenth Century

1

23.3 Observations of Precipitation in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century

1

23.3.1 Instrumental Observations in Cracow

1

23.3.2 Organisation of a Network of Weather Stations and Precipitation Posts

1

23.4 Nineteenth Century Pluvial Conditions in the Light of Observations and Measurements from Cracow

1

23.5 Conclusions

1

References

1

Przybylak_Ch24

476

Chapter 24

476

Variability of the European Climate on the Basis of Differentiation of Indicators of Continentalism

476

24.1 Introduction

476

24.2 Material and Methods

477

24.3 Thermal Continentality

479

24.4 Pluvial Continentality

481

24.5 Climate Continentalism in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation Patterns

483

24.6 Conclusions

485

References

487

Przybylak_Ch25

488

Chapter 25

488

The First One Hundred Years (1791–1890) of the Wroc aw Air Temperature Series

488

25.1 Introduction

488

25.2 The Beginnings of the Wroc aw Air Temperature Series

489

25.3 The Correction of the Influence of Location Changes on Air Temperature Measurements in Wroc aw in the Nineteenth Centu

490

25.4 Other Corrections of the Wroc aw Air Temperature Series

492

25.5 Discussion of Results

495

25.6 Temperature Measurements in Other Silesian Stations

496

25.7 Conclusions

526

References

527

Przybylak_Backmatter

528

Chapter 5

141

Instrumental Observations

141

5.1 History of Early-Instrumental Observations

141

5.2 History of Some Long-Term Continuous Meteorological Series

156

5.2.1 Air Temperature

156

5.2.2 Atmospheric Precipitation

157

5.2.3 Atmospheric Pressure

158

5.2.4 Other Meteorological Variables

159

5.3 Climate Changes in the Instrumental Period

161

5.3.1 Air Temperature

162

5.3.2 Atmospheric Precipitation

167

5.3.3 Other Variables

169

5.4 Conclusions

171

References

172

Chapter 6

179

Documentary Evidence

179

6.1 Introduction

179

6.2 Documentary Sources – Kinds and Quality

182

6.2.1 The Middle Ages

184

6.2.2 The Sixteenth Century

185

6.2.3 The Seventeenth Century

186

6.2.4 The Eighteenth Century

187

6.2.5 A Concise Typology of Sources for the Period from the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries

188

6.2.6 Territorial Distribution of Records

189

6.2.7 Chronological Distribution of Records

189

6.3 History of Poland’s Climate in the Last Millennium

189

6.3.1 Air Temperature

190

6.3.2 Precipitation

194

6.4 Conclusions

196

References

197

Chapter 23

461

Observations and Measurements of Precipitation in the Polish Province of Galicia in the Nineteenth Century

461

23.1 Introduction

461

23.2 Observations and Measurements of Precipitation Until the Mid Nineteenth Century

462

23.3 Observations of Precipitation in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century

463

23.3.1 Instrumental Observations in Cracow

463

23.3.2 Organisation of a Network of Weather Stations and Precipitation Posts

466

23.4 Nineteenth Century Pluvial Conditions in the Light of Observations and Measurements from Cracow

469

23.5 Conclusions

472

References

474